Spine Anatomy, vertebral column and spinal curves

Spine-The Physio Club


Spine Anatomy the Vertebral column :

Spine-The Physio Club
Spine-The Physio Club

Human Spine is made up of 33 vertebrae(bones) and hence called spinal column or the Vertebral column.
It is divided into 5 regions and from superior to inferior these regions are :

  • 7 cervical vertebrae C1-C7
  • 12 thoracic vertebrae T1-T12
  • 5 lumbar vertebrae L1-L5
  • 5 fused sacral vertebrae S1-S5
  • 4 small fused coccygeal vertebrae. Co4
    C1-Atlas :
  • The first cervical vertebrae is called Atlas.
  • It makes a joint with skull (occipital bone) called Atlanto-Occipital joint.
  • It allows 14-15 degrees of Flexion and Extension.
    C2-Axis :
  • The second cervical vertebrae is called Axis.
  • The joint it makes with the above vertebrae is called atlanto-axial joint.
  • The Atlanto-Axial joint allows 75degrees of rotation,14 degrees of extension,24 degrees of lateral/side flexion.
    Intervertebral Disc :
  • The Articulation between adjacent vertebral bodies are symphysis joints , between them is sandwiched a fibro cartilaginous disc called intervertebral disc.
  • The Intervertebral disc acts as a cushion for shock absorber.
    intervertebral disc-The Physio Club
    Intervertebral disc-The Physio Club

    Components :
    Annulus Fibrosis :
    It is a thick Fibro cartilaginous ring that forms the exterior part of the intervertebral disc.
    Nucleus Pulposus :
    It is a colloidal gel with a high fluid content , located inside the annulus fibrosis of the intervertebral disc.
    Movements of Spine :
    Following are the movements possible at spine :

  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Hyperextension
  • Lateral/Side Flexion
  • Rotation
    Ligaments of Spine :

    ligaments of spine-The Physio Club
    ligaments of spine-The Physio Club


    Following are the ligaments of spine :

  • Supraspinous ligament
  • Interspinous Ligament
  • ligamentum Flavum
  • Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
  • Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
    Muscles of the Spine :
    Folowing are the muscles of spine :

    Muscles of Spine-The Physio Club
    Muscles of Spine-The Physio Club

    Muscles of the Anterior aspect of Vertebral column :
    Cervical Region :

  • Rectus Capitus Anterior
  • Rectus Capitus Lateralis
  • Longus Capitis
  • Longus Colli
    Suprahyoid Muscles :
  • Stylohyoid
  • Mylohyoid
  • Genohyoid
  • Digastric
    Infrahyoid Muscles :
  • Sternohyoid
  • Sternothyroid
  • Thyrohyoid
  • Omohyoid
    Abdominal Muscles :
  • Rectus Abdominis
  • External Oblique
  • Internal Oblique
    Muscles of the Posterior aspect of Spine :
  • Splenius Capitus
  • Splenius Cervicis
  • Obliqus Capitus Superior
  • Obliqus Capitus Inferior
  • Rectus Capitus Posterior Major
  • Rectus Capitus Posterior Minor
  • Spinalis Cervicis
  • Spinalis Thoracis
  • Longissimus Capitis
  • Longissimus Cervicis
  • Longissimus Thoracis
  • Intercostalis Cervicis
  • Intercostalis Thoracis
  • Intercostalis Lumborum
  • Semi Spinalis Capitis
  • Semi Spinalis Cervicis
  • Semi Spinalis Thoracis
  • Interspinalis
  • Multifedus
  • Rotator Longus
  • Rotator Bravis
  • Levator Costa Longus
  • Levator Costa Bravis
  • Intertransversus Lateralis
  • Intertransversus Medius
    Muscles of the Lateral aspect of Vertebral column :
  • Sternocleidomastoid
  • Levator Scapulae
  • Scalenous Anterior
  • Scalenous Posterior
  • Scalenous Medius
  • Quadratus Lamborum
  • Psoas Major
  • Psoas Minor
    Loads on Vertebral column :
  • Tension
  • Compression
    Spinal Curves :
    Primary Spinal Curves :
  • Thoracic curve
  • Sacral curve
    Secondary curves :
  • Lumbar curve
  • Cervical curve
    Lordosis :
    Extreme Lumbar Curvature is called Lordosis.

    Lordosis-The Physio Club
    Lordosis-The Physio Club


    Causes of Lordosis:

  • Weak Abdominal Muscles
  • Anterior Pelvic Tilt
  • Low Back Pain
  • Limited Range of Motion in Hip Extension
    Kyphosis :
    Extreme Thoracic Curvature is called Kyphosis.

    kyphosis-The Physio Club
    kyphosis-The Physio Club

    Causes of Kyphosis:

  • congenital abnormality
  • scheuermann’s disease
    Scoliosis :
    The condition of lateral curvature of Vertebral column is called Scoliosis.

    Scoliosis-The Physio Club
    Scoliosis-The Physio Club

    Causes of Scoliosis :

  • Rotatory movement of the involved vertebrae.
  • Low bone mineral density

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