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Route of Administration : Parenteral Route | Enteral Route | Topical Route

The Route of Administration through which drugs are administered in the body are dependent on the following factors which are ;

1- The Chemical and Physical Properties of the Drug

2- The Site at which the desired action is required

3- The Condition of the Patient at the Present time

4- The Condition of the Disease whether it is serious or not

The Basic Route of  Administration are Listed and Described below ;

1- Enteral Route of Drug Administration

2- Parenteral Route of Drug Administration

3- Topical Route of Drug Administration

4- Inhalation Route of Drug Administration

Enteral Route of Administration

This means the Administration of drugs via Alimentary tract in which drugs are given by ;

> Mouth
 > Placed under the Tounge and
> also given rectally

Oral Route of Administration

This is the most usually followed route of the enteral route of administration ;
Advantages :
Easy and Safe Route of administration. Effect is more prolonged as compared to drugs given by injections. Most Drugs are absorbed by using the Oral route of Administration. Drugs are absorbed more quickly if are taken on an empty Stomach
Disadvantages :
Some Drugs taken by Oral route are destroyed by digestive enzymes, such drugs are , Adrenaline, oxytocin, insulin, benzyl penicilin . Niacin and some other drugs may not be absorbed at all.  It is not of route of choice in Emergency situations. Unconscious and Uncooperative Patients cannot be dealt by this route. Some of the drugs given orally are irritant to gastric mucosa and may cause  Nausea and Vomiting.

Sublingual/Buccal Route and Rectal Route of Drug Administration are also the forms of Drug Adminstration through the Enteral Route.

Parenteral Route of Adminsitration

Parenteral Route

Parenteral Route

This is the Parenteral Route of Drug Administration in which the Drugs are Administered through Injections.
Rapid Absorption of Drug as Compared to Oral administration .This Route of drug administration is useful in Unconscious and Uncooperative Patients as compared to oral administration .Drugs given through Injections are not inactivated  and are also not destroyed .While using injections only smaller doses are required to bring about large amount of desired actions
Injections are more painful form of Drug intake as compared to Oral intake .Injections are more expensive as compared oral medications .Injections are less safe than orally taken drugs .Injections are more difficult for patients to take if self-medication is necessary

Classification of Injections :

Injections are widely Classified as :
IntraVenous, IntraArterial, IntraDermal, IntraCardiac, IntraPleural, IntraPeritoneal, IntraThecal, IntraArticular, IntraMuscular, Subcutaneous

Inhalation Route

Drugs given through Inhalation Route are Volatile Liquids and Gases that Produce General Anestheia
Volatile liquids include Ether and Halothane  while Gases involve Nitrous Oxide.
Nebulizers and aerosols based drugs are used by inhalation route to relieve Asthma.

Topical Route of Drug Administration

Topical Route involves the Use of Drugs on External Body Surfaces, involving Skin and the Mucosal Surfaces of other internal organs.

There are various Methods to achieve Topical Drug Application,
Application to the Skin involves three steps ;
1- Enepidermic
2- Epidermic
3- Cataphoresis

Topical Methods other than skin are ;

1 Instillation
2 Insufflation
3 Irrigation
4 Insertion
5 Painting/Swabbing

So this topic comes to an end and was all about Routes of Drug Administration.
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Regards : The Physio Club

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